Our Technology

 Keystone's Advanced Oxidation Process technology uses ozone in the presence of  electrocatalysts to break down organics to either precipitate them as organics biodegradable molecules or to form CO2 and H2O.  Keystone's AOP technology has successfully processed wastewater streams with high levels of organics, petroleum, BODs, CODs, and heavy metals. 

The Keystone AOP technology allows shale gas drilling waste and hazardous waste disposal in an economical and regulatory compliant manner while enabling resource recovery. The AOP technology converts toxic waste streams into clean water and useful by-products at lower deployment and operating costs than competing systems.  

Keystone's modular product line is portable (can be used at the well site) and scalable (base unit treats 6,000 barrels a day with virtually limitless capability for expansion). The systems are pre-piped and wired to meet a standard design format which effectively reduces costs.  

he systems are mounted on tractor trailer(s) and delivered to the drill site.

The AOP technology has many waste water cleaning capabilities such as:

Removal of heavy metals         

Removal of suspended and colloidal solids

Breaking oil/water emulsions       

Removing fats, oils and greases

Breaking oil/water emulsions       

 Removing fats, oils and greases

Removing complex organics

Destroying bacteria, viruses and cysts

Reducing BOD, phosphates and nitrogen levels

The  AOP technology produces Ozone directly from water using  a patented electrocatalytic dissociation process.  The resulting nascent xygen in the presence of metal catalysts produces  a mixture of powerful oxidants including oxygen radicals, ozone, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals.  These work together to simultaneously oxidize, coagulate and eliminate organize and inorganic  pollutants.  These are especially effective in destroying micro-organisms.  

 The AOP technology offers distinct process benefits over  coagulation methods including the following:     

Cost savings: The operating costs are significantly less than most standard treatment methods.

Clarified water is of high quality, which may allow it to be re-cycled and/or re-used       

It helps meet EPA and council compliance standards, and/or further reduce discharge fees.      

Smaller volumes of sludge are produced, which are more shear resistant and easily dewatered. This is in       contrast to chemically coagulated sludge, which generally have a high bound water content and larger volume.

The Sludge produced generally passes the US EPA's guidelines for Toxic Characteristic Leaching Protocol (TCLP). This is in contrast to chemically coagulated sludges which are generally unstable metal hydroxides that are classified as hazardous and must be disposed of in secure land-fills.

The system requires very little maintenance, supervision or floor space

Our Process

In the AOP process, water or wastewater undergoes a primary mechanical treatment and comes to the AOP reactor where it undergoes a further electro-catalytic shock.  This treatment increases the solubility of gases, reduces the scaling capacity, and increases the sorption capacity of suspended matter, increasing coagulation by up to 45%.  The effluent all the while is rotating in the reactor. Ozone is introduced where an electro-catalytic reaction occurs.  The ozone oxidizes organic compounds and bacteria.  In the reactor the effluent is in a slow state of cavitation, where the electric shock increases the solubility of the ozone enriched air by more than 30 times forming a suspended matter flocculant.  The effluent is also subject to UV radiation to remove bacteria and other pathogens.  The flocculants are removed by electro-coagulation decreasing CODs and removing oil and gas, metals and other materials resulting in clean water. No large settlement ponds  are required in the process.